Expert Interview: What is carcinoma and malignant cancer, how many types of head and neck cancers
Malignant tumor may occur in any part of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx or sinus.
There are many types of cancer of the head and neck. Where is the cancer in which it is not spread, it is only after examining it that treatment is done. Malignant tumor may occur in any part of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx or sinus. Carcinoma is the most common type of head and neck cancer, which often begins with the inner surface of the nose, mouth and throat. Dr. Manish Singhal, Senior Consultant Oncologist, Apollo Hospital, Delhi know about it .
Question: How many types of cancer of the head and neck are?
Answer: It is of several types. The type of cancer depends on its type. like
Oral cavity (of the mouth)
Oropharyngeal (back in the mouth / throat)
Nest cavity (from the back of the nose to the throat, from the roof of the mouth)
Para-nasal sinus (of sinus)
Naso-familial (upper part of the throat)
Larringel (of voice box)
Hypofarinigial (behind the throat, behind the voice box)
Selvari Gland (Celibai Gland / Salivary glands)
Question: What are the causes of these cancer?
Answer: According to one estimate, about 5 lakh people have cancer of the head and neck every year. Cancer can be caused by genetic or environmental reasons, but the cause of head and neck cancer is usually lifestyle habits such as khaini, zarda and chewing gum; Beedi, cigarette drink etc. Apart from this, smoke from fuel wood, and excessive alcohol consumption can also cause cancer.
Question: How do you treat?
Answer: After confirmation of cancer, it is first checked that the cancer has reached the stage. When the cancer is in only one part then treatment is done with surgery and radiation. However, if the metastasis (spreading to other organs) has been done then targeted chemotherapy drugs are given.
Use of immunotherapy: ‘Immunotherapy’ is a modern way of treating cancer, which works on the body’s immune system to combat cancer. This includes ‘Immune-Checkpoint Invocation’. In this process, certain medicines block such proteins, which prevent immunization systems from attacking cancerous cells. This block occurs when the cancer cells are attacking the immunity of the body. ‘Checkpoint Inhibitors’ prepare immune system to fight cancer cells. Some examples of checkpoint inhibitors are Nevolumab and Pembrolzizmab.
Question: What steps should be taken to avoid this?
Answer: Tobacco is the main cause of this cancer. Even if a person smokes around, people around them may be victims of cancer (Passive Smoking). Much alcohol intake can also cause cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larrinx and eosophagus. With excessive sun exposure, one can also be a victim of head and neck and skin cancer, hence the use of sunscreen and sun blockers is advised. If there is a history of cancer in the family, then it should be done regularly. Tobacco and alcohol should also not be consumed.